Charlotte Yonge Bibliography Template

Several of these authors have also published articles and papers in the Review of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship and the Journal of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship. See our Review and Journal contents pages for these items.

We welcome all Yonge-related suggestions for this page. Please email cmyfemail(at) and send as many details as possible .


Addleshaw, S.
“The High Church Movement in Victorian Fiction: Charlotte M. Yonge.”
Church Quarterly Review 120 (April 1935): 54–73.

Adler, Catherine Sinnard
English Novels Of 1865
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Indiana University, 1981

Novels by Emma Newby, Charlotte Yonge, Dinah Craik, Frederick Robinson, Annie Cudlip, Frances Lean, Rhoda Broughton, Edmund Yates and Mrs. Hoey are examined, along with Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, Trollope's Can You Forgive Her?, The Belton Estate and Miss Mackenzie and Margaret Oliphant's Miss Marjori-banks.

Alston, Ann
‘“Man about the House”’ Constructions of Masculinity in Charlotte Yonge’s The Daisy Chain and Anne Fine’s Madame Doubtfire”
Unpublished paper presented for the International Research Society for Children’s Literature (IRSCL), Trinity College, Dublin. August 2005.

A. J. H.
"Charlotte M. Yonge's 'The Daisy Chain.' "
Notes and Queries CXCV (December 1950)

This piece seems to be a reply to a Piece by "G.N.S.H" published in November 1950. Click here to see the reference.

Anolik, Ruth Bienstock
"Gothic Murder: Containment of Horror in Charlotte Yonge’s Chantry House"
originally presented as a paper called "Charlotte Yonge's Gothic Murder" at the IGA Conference 2001 Gothic Cults and Gothic Cultures.

Click here to see the abstract and full text of this paper (available on our Chantry House page)

'Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901): Novelist of the Oxford Movement',
Review article, Victorian Periodicals Review, 27:4, 1994, pp 362-365.

Avery, Gillian
Village Children
Edited and with an introduction by Gillian Avery, (London: Victor Gollancz, 1967)

Stories in this book include : A patchwork fever -- Left out -- Wolf -- Bully Brindle -- Quack, quack -- Leonard, the Lion-heart.

Gillian Avery, well known for her stories of Victorian children (among them 'The Warden's Niece', 'The Elephant War'), provides an introduction to a selection of Yonge's tales of the children of Langley village.

Bailey, Sarah
“Charlotte Mary Yonge.”
Cornhill Magazine 150 (August 1934): 188–98.

Banerjee, Jacqueline
Through the northern gate. Childhood and growing up in British fiction 1719-1901.
Studies in nineteenth-century British literature, 6. 
(New York: Peter Lang, 1996)
ISBN 0-8204-3010-2

Barker, Alisha M.
"From nature to virtue : moral formation and community in novels by Charlotte Yonge and Elizabeth Gaskell."
M.A. thesis, Baylor University. Dept. of English, 2009

Details of this document are available here.

From the author's summary:
This thesis explores how novels by Charlotte Yonge and Elizabeth Gaskell contest popular Victorian assumptions that moral influence stems from maternal nature. By offering virtue as the true source of moral influence, these authors also challenge Victorian ideas about who should be involved in the moral formation of the young. In this thesis, I first examine how these authors' portrayals of bad mothers demonstrate their belief that maternal instinct is distinct from a woman's ability to be a positive moral influence on her children. Next, I consider how Yonge's and Gaskell's frequent use of virtuous female mentors demonstrates their belief that moral formation is both a communal activity and social duty. Finally, I explore how understanding the virtue that enables moral influence as domestic rather than feminine leads Yonge and Gaskell to portray fathers and male mentors who play a significant role in the moral formation of young people.

Bass, Cecilia
"An examination of narrative approaches in eight novels by Charlotte Mary Yonge"
Dissertation (1993)

Bass, Cecilia
‘Random choice or character delineation: family Christian names in The Daisy Chain’.
Newsletter of the Charlotte M. Yonge Fellowship (no. 7, Summer 1998), p. 5.

Report of a paper delivered by Dom Andrew Johnson to the summer meeting of the CMYF.

Battiscombe, Georgina
Charlotte Mary Yonge. The story of an uneventful life. 
(London: Constable, 1943)

With an introduction by E.M. Delafield.

Battiscombe, Georgina and Laski, Marghanita (eds.). 
A chaplet for Charlotte Yonge. 
(London: Cresset Press, 1965)

Bauer-Gatsos, Sheila Catherine
Reiteration as resistance : performativity in the novels of Charlotte Yonge, George Eliot, and Margaret Oliphant
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Lehigh University (2003)

This dissertation examines the multilayered (sometimes contradictory) readings that can exist within complex texts. Dr Bauer-Gatsos' current research is focused on Charlotte Mary Yonge’s family chronicles and Margaret Oliphant’s sensation novels.

Bemis, Virginia Thompson
“The Novels of Charlotte Yonge: A Critical Introduction.”
Unpublished dissertation, Michigan State University.
Abstract: Dissertation Abstracts International 41 (June 1981): 5105A

Bemis, Virginia Thompson
"Reverent and Reserved: The Sacramental Theology of Charlotte M. Yonge"
in Women's Theology in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Transfiguring the Faith of Their Fathers
edited by Julie Melnyk
Garland, January 1998
ISBN 0-8153-2793-5

From the Publisher's introduction: This collection of original essays identifies and analyzes 19th-century women's theological thought in all its diversity, demonstrating the ways that women revised, subverted, or rejected elements of masculine theology in creating theologies of their own. While women's religion has been widely studied, this is the only collection of essays that examines 19th-century women's theology as such. A substantial introduction clarifies the relationships between religion and theology and discusses the barriers to women's participation in theological discourse as well as the ways women overcame or avoided these barriers. The essays analyze theological ideas in a variety of genres. The first group of essays discusses women's nonfiction prose, including women's devotional writings on the Apocalypse; devotional prose by Christina Rossetti and its similarities to the work of Hildegard von Bingen; periodical prose by Anna Jameson and Julia Wedgwood; and the letters of Harriet and Jemima Newman, sisters of John Henry Newman. Other essays examine the novel, presenting analysis of the theologies of novelists Emma Jane Worboise, Charlotte M. Yonge, and Mary Arnold Ward. Further essays discuss the theological ideas of two purity reformers, Josephine Butler and Ellice Hopkins, while the final essays move beyond Victorian Christianity to examine spiritualist and Buddhist theology by women

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Bennett, E. Arnold
Fame and fiction : an enquiry into certain popularities.
Grant Richards, London, 1901

The "average reader," and the recipe for popularity -- Miss Braddon -- Mr. J.M. Barrie -- Charlotte M. Yonge -- Miss Rhoda Broughton -- Madame Sarah Grand -- "The master Christian" -- Miss E.T. Fowler -- "Red pottage" -- A note on the revolution in journalism -- The fiction of popular magazines -- Mr. Silas Hocking -- The craze for historical fiction in America -- Mr. James Lane Allen -- "David Harum" -- Mr. George Gissing -- Ivan Turgenev -- Mr. George Moore.

Blakeway, Alys
"Charlotte Yonge and the City of Winchester"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 4-11.

Bourrier, Karen
“The Spirit of a Man and the Limbs of a Cripple”: Sentimentality, Disability, and Masculinity in Charlotte Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe
in Victorian Review 35.2 (Fall 2009): Special Issue: Victorian Disability.

Briggs, Katherine Mary
Folklore in the Works of Charlotte Yonge.
(Occasional Papers of the K.B.Club, No. 1. Cambridge: Just Your Type, 1990)

With introduction and notes by Kathleen Tillotson.

Brownell, David Blair
The Domestic World Of Charlotte M. Yonge
Unpublished thesis (Ph. D.) – Harvard University (1973)

Brownell, David Blair
"The Two Worlds of Charlotte Yonge"
in The Worlds of Victorian Fiction. Ed. Jerome H. Buckley.
Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard UP, 1975. 165-178.

You may be able to read this paper on Google Books. Click here to try ...

Buckingham, Minnie Susan
The influence of the Oxford movement on Charlotte Yonge
Unpublished MA Thesis 1933 University of Chicago.

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Budge, Gavin
"Performance Anxiety: sexuality, aestheticism and modernity in Charlotte M Yonge's The Pillars of the House"

Conference paper: no further details at the moment

Budge, Gavin
"Realism and Typology in Charlotte M Yonge"
in Victorian Literature and Culture 31:1, pp 193-223, 2003.

The following is from the History Online website:

Recent attempts at a critical recuperation of the fiction of Charlotte M. Yonge have largely sidestepped the issue of her work's commitment to a religious perspective. June Sturrock's brief 1995 monograph, “Heaven and Home”: Charlotte M. Yonge's Domestic Fiction and the Victorian Debate over Women, is focused on the way in which Yonge's Tractarian beliefs provided a framework within which a conservative feminist account of an independent social role for women could be articulated, but takes those beliefs themselves as givens. Catherine Sandbach-Dahlström's more substantial 1984 study, Be Good Sweet Maid: Charlotte Yonge's Domestic Fiction: A Study in Dogmatic Purpose and Fictional Form, whilst noting a relationship between apparent changes in Yonge's religious beliefs and differences in the form of her novels, is characterized by a formalist mode of interpretation which tends to bracket off the question of how Yonge presents religious belief in her novels from any wider context in Victorian religious thought.

Budge, Gavin
"Irritable and Mesmeric Women in the Novels of Charlotte M. Yonge: towards a non-secular definition of realism"
Paper given at Victorian Cultures In Conflict - BAVS Seventh Annual Conference 2006 at the The University Of Liverpool

Budge, Gavin
Charlotte M. Yonge. Religion, feminism and realism in the Victorian novel
Oxford: Peter Lang, 2007. £35 (paper).
ISBN 978 3 03911 339 2

Carlisle, Janice
Common Scents: Comparative Encounters in High-Victorian Fiction.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004. ISBN: 0195165098.

One of the books discussed in detail is Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family.

Click here to read an abstracts of this book and its chapters on the Oxford Scholarship Online website.

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"The Victorian Pulpit: Spoken and Written Sermons in Nineteenth-Century Britain (review)"
Victorian Studies 43, Number 2, Winter 2001, pp. 305-306
(details and extract available here)

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"Haunted Texts: Studies in Pre-Raphaelitism in Honour of William E. Fredeman (review)"
University of Toronto Quarterly, 74, Number 1, Winter 2004/2005, pp. 448-449
(details and extract available here)

Carpenter, Mary Wilson
"Disabling Men: Male Invalids and the Pathologizing of the Family in Charlotte M. Yonge’s The Heir of Redclyffe"
Paper scheduled for presentation at
The third annual conference of the North American Victorian Studies Association
to be held 30 September – 2 October 2005
at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville

The Secret of Miss Yonge's Influence
(A short atricle at the end of: Charlotte Mary Yonge. An appreciation by Ethel Romanes
Click link above to read this article)

See also
Charlotte Mary Yonge. An appreciation

Cawthorn, Caroline
Soldier saints : the Christian hero in the novels of Charles Kingsley and Charlotte M. Yonge
Unpublished thesis (M. Phil.) – University of Oxford (2002)

Chapman, Raymond
Faith and revolt. Studies in the literary influence of the Oxford Movement. 
(London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970)

Chen, Mia
" 'And There Was No Helping It': Disability and Social Reproduction in Charlotte Yonge’s The Daisy Chain"
Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies Issue 4.2 (Summer 2008)

The full text of this article is currently available - click here

Chen, Mia
" 'To face apparent discrepancies with revelation' : Examining the fossil record in Charlotte Yonge's The Trial"
Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click here for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Charlotte Yonge placed religious belief at the centre of her world view, yet this did not prevent her from engaging with nineteenth-century geological theories traditionally associated with crises of faith, namely the discovery that the earth pre-dates the existence of humans by millions of years and that forms of life long extinct once populated its surface.

Chew, Cynthia Mei-Li
"It's stupid being a girl!: the tomboy character in selected children's series fiction."
Unpublished PhD thesis, Murdoch University. (2008)

Click here for full details of this thesis, including the author's abstract
Click here to read this thesis (PDF)

Clare, Hilary
"Medical training: Mays, Wards and Brownlows"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 10-19.

Clarke, Tayce Langley
An education in virtue : didacticism and audience in Elizabeth Gaskell's Ruth and Charlotte Yonge's the heir of Redclyffe
Unpublished thesis (M.A.) – College of William and Mary (1996)


Clements, Susannah
“Thorns in the Flesh: Sickness, Providence, and Religious Authority in Charlotte Yonge’s Clever Woman of the Family.”
Unpublished paper given at The Victorians Institute 2000 Conference: This Strange Disease of Modern Life’: Victorian Illness, Health and Medicine

Clements, Susannah
"Charlotte Yonge and the Dangers of Certainty, or How Croquet Can Kill You."
Unpublished paper given at The Midwest Regional meeting of the Conference on Christianity and Literature
March 2004
(No further details available yet).

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Colby, Vineta
Yesterday's Woman: Domestic Realism in the English Novel
Princeton U P, 1974

Mrs. Gore, Maria Edgeworth, Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, Charlotte Yonge, Harriet Martineau.

Coleridge, Christabel
Charlotte Mary Yonge. Her life and letters. 
(London: Macmillan, 1903)

Includes genealogical tables and 12 plates.

Appendices contain : Letters from various friends; bibliography; family pedigrees; important dates in Yonge's life; specimen of many conversations recorded by Miss Yonge in her early days; imaginary biographies; questions on Miss Yonge's books; account of Yonge's funeral.

This book is available to read online and download from Cornell University Library

Colón, Susan E.
"Realism And Reserve: Charlotte Yonge And Tractarian Aesthetics"
Part of a special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: Reserve was absolutely central to the Tractarian theological and aesthetic programme, and Yonge's position as a leading practitioner of Tractarian aesthetics demands that we understand the relationship of reserve to her realism. Some critics have assumed that realism is simply incommensurate with reserve, while others have reduced reserve to its psychological dimension. However, while John Keble's and Isaac Williams' complex discussions of reserve are well understood, it is clear that realism has distinct value for reserve both theologically and aesthetically. Yonge cannily exploited realism's potential both to practise and preach reserve. This essay reads The Pillars of the House (1873), especially the scene of the cathedral choral festival, to explore the unique power of Yonge's realism to instruct readers in the doctrine of reserve without violating reserve in doing so.

Colón, Susan E.
"Realism and Parable in Charlotte Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe"
Journal of Narrative Theory, Volume 40, Number 1, Winter 2010, pp. 29-52
E-ISSN: 1548-9248 Print ISSN: 1549-0815

The full text of this article is currently available - click here

Colón, Susan E.
Victorian Parables
ISBN 9781441146502
New York 2012

From the Publisher's website: The familiar stories of the good Samaritan, the prodigal son, and Lazarus and the rich man were part of the cultural currency in the nineteenth century, and Victorian authors drew upon the figures and plots of biblical parables for a variety of authoritative, interpretive, and subversive effects. However, scholars of parables in literature have often overlooked the 19th-century novel, assuming that realism bears no relation to the subversive, iconoclastic genre of parable. In this book Susan E. Colòn shows that authors such as Charles Dickens, Margaret Oliphant, and Charlotte Yonge appreciated the power of parables to deliver an ethical charge that was as unexpected as it was disruptive to conventional moral ideas. Against the common assumption that the genres of realism and parable are polar opposites, this study explores how Victorian novels, despite their length, verisimilitude, and multi-plot complexity, can become parables in ways that imitate, interpret, and challenge their biblical sources.

Chapter 3 is : "The Parable of Actual Life": Charlotte Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe

Reviews are available on the Continuum Publisher's website

Conrad, Lois Victoria
Perish or Publish: Victorian Culture and Women's Subjectivity in the Autobiographies and Fiction of Margaret Oliphant and Charlotte Yonge (Women Writers)
Unpublished thesis (Ph.D), Tulane University, 1997.

Coulson, Victoria
"Tyntesfield House and Charlotte Mary Yonge"
Paper given at Text & Architecture -- An international Word & Image Conference
Paris 2003

Click here for a summary of this paper

Courtney, Julia
Charlotte Mary Yonge : a novelist and her readers
Thesis (Ph. D.) – University of London (1990)

Courtney, Julia
"The Barnacle: A manuscript magazine of the 1860s"
in The Girl’s Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo–American Girl 1830-1915
ed. Claudia Nelson and Lynne Vallone.
Arkansas and London, University of Georgia Press: 1994

Courtney, Julia
"Charlotte M Yonge and Sir Walter Scott"
Paper given at the Spring Meeting of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship, Edinburgh, 2003.

Courtney. Julia and Schultze, Clemence (editors)
Characters & Scenes: Studies in Charlotte M. Yonge
ISBN 978-0-9557096-0-9
UK 2008

Click here to see reviewer comments and order form for this book

Charlotte M. Yonge was a leading Victorian novelist and a best-seller in her own time. Her books now attract considerable academic interest and still continue to appeal to the general reader. This collection of essays by Yonge specialists and scholars is published by the Charlotte M. Yonge Fellowship.

  • Barbara Dennis: Charlotte Yonge, Novelist of the Oxford Movement
  • Amy de Gruchy: Continuity and Development in the Fiction of Charlotte Yonge
  • Wendy Forrester: Dynevor Terrace and The Heir of Redclyffe
  • Cecilia Bass: Charlotte Yonge and the Critics
  • Barbara J. Dunlap: Charlotte Yonge: Embodying the Domestic Fiction
  • :Women's Work, Money and the Everyday: The Novels of the 1870s
  • John Alves and Hilary Clare: The Genealogies of the Interlinked Families appearing in Charlotte Yonge's Novels set in her own Times
  • Maria Poggi Johnson: The Case for Anglicanism in Charlotte Yonge's Historical Fiction
  • Clemence Schultze: Charlotte Yonge and the Classics
  • : Mother Goose's Brood: Some Followers of Charlotte Yonge and their Novels

The book concludes with a sermon preached shortly after her death at St Matthew's, Otterbourne by Canon Robert Moberly, and an extensive bibliography of works by and about Yonge. This collection of studies in Charlotte M. Yonge will therefore not only be welcomed by those who are already admirers of her books but will also introduce the life and work of this extraordinary Victorian writer to a much wider readership.

Click here to read a brief summary from the British Association for Victorian Studies.

Click here to read a review from the Church Times

Courtney, Julia
"Miss Fenimore meets Mr Gradgrind: or Hopes and Fears for these Hard Times: Oppositions of fact, fancy and faith in C.M. Yonge and Charles Dickens"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 25-33.

Thesis summary from the nz.research org (Kiwi Research Information Service) website:

This thesis investigates the part played by the idea of illness in the mid-nineteenth- century construction of femininity and women's sexuality. I have investigated a variety of discourses – medical writing, the debate on prostitution, the conduct books of Sarah Ellis, and the novels of Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Braddon, and Charlotte Yonge – with the hypothesis that, in the hierarchized opposition that defined gender in the mid-nineteenth century, femininity was constituted in terms of illness, and "to be a woman was to be ill". I have used the theoretical works of Michel Foucault to look at the way in which discourse transmits and produces power. In Part One, I show how the 'masculine' discourses of medical texts and the debate on prostitution produced an ideal of femininity which confined woman to the domestic sphere, and pathologized her sexuality by defining it in terms of reproduction. In these texts, in order to universalize the ideal of domestic womanhood, the differences of class are of less importance than those of gender. Conduct books by women, on the other hand, while constraining women to the domestic sphere, produce a construction of womanhood which is active rather than passive, healthy rather than ill. In Parts Two and Three, I have shown how novels by women engage with the ideal of domestic femininity, and the strategies these authors have used to redefine, appropriate, endorse, or subvert it. In each of these, illness appears in some form – madness, disease, invalidism, or "decline" – in relation to the feminine ideal and the construction of women's sexuality.

Click here to see this thesis (PDF document)

Many thanks to Rowan Gibbs for alterting us to this PDF.

DaGue, Elizabeth
"Images of Work, Glimpses of Professionalism in Selected Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Novels"
in Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1,
National Women's Studies Association: Selected Conference Proceedings, 1979 (Spring, 1980), pp. 50-55

Davis, Marjorie T.
Charlotte M. Yonge's popular novel, The heir of Redclyffe.
Thesis (M. A.) – University of South Florida (1969)
Available in
USF Tampa USF Thesis and Dissertation Collection and
USF LIBRARY--Tampa Circulating Collection -- PR 5912 .H4 D3

De Gruchy, Lilian Amy
"The Monthly Packet" : a study of C.M. Yonge's editorial aims and practice
Thesis: (M. Phil.) – University of London (1986)
Holding Libraries: ULL

De Gruchy, Amy
"The Monthly Packet"
Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Society Fellowship.

De Gruchy, Amy
"Could Ethel May teach?"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 20-28.

De Gruchy, Amy
"Charlotte M. Yonge's historical novels: the influence of Scott"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 21-29.

Dennis, Barbara
"The Two Voices of Charlotte Yonge."
The Durham University Journal, 65 (March, 1973): 181-88.

Dennis, Barbara
"The Victorian Crisis: A Contemporary View."
Durham University Journal.
December 1980; 73 (1): 27-36.

Dennis, Barbara
Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901) Novelist of the Oxford Movement. 
A Literature of Victorian Culture and Society. 
(Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992)
ISBN: 0-773495-44-4

The text below is from the publisher's website:


In her time Charlotte Yonge (whose publications from first to last span the precise years of Victoria's reign) was as popular as Dickens. Her novels reflect her close involvement with John Keble, inaugurator of the Movement, and record every stage and detail of the Movement throughout the century at parish level, and how it was received by the middle-classes in a rapidly-changing society. In the light of new biographical discoveries, published and unpublished letters, non-fiction material such as her articles in the Monthly Packet, and consequent re-reading of Charlotte Yonge's novels, this study reveals the pervasiveness of the Oxford Movement in society.


"Detailing the work of the Oxford Movement on Yonge's novels, this work is useful as an introduction to the too-often-ignored literary aspect of the Oxford Movement. Its extensive plot summaries are helpful for the person who wishes to do more research in this area, while the reader who knows little of the Oxford Movement will be guided by the informative footnotes that detail important events of the era, such as the Hampden controversy. . . . This biography offers a useful survey of the work of Charlotte Yonge and will be welcomed by those who seek an introduction to the literary aspect of the Oxford Movement." -- Victorian Studies

Dennis, Barbara
Introduction to Charlotte Yonge in The Heir of Redclyffe, pp. vii-xxv.
(Oxford University Press, World’s Classics - out of print in 2001)  
ISBN: 0-192831321

Dennis, Barbara
"Clever woman of the family – Charlotte Yonge and the higher education of women"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 7 (2005), pp 3-9.

Dennis, Barbara
Introduction to the The Daisy Chain
1988 Virago modern classics
ISBN 0860688798

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Dowker, Ann
"The Treatment of Disability in 19th and Early 20th Century Children's Literature"
Disability Studies Quarterly, Winter 2004, Volume 24, No. 1

(From the author's introductory paragraph)
The classics of nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century children's fiction contain many characters with disabilities ... : there are of course also many disabled characters in children's books that are currently less well-known and/or less available to children: books by such authors as Charlotte Yonge, Annie Keary, Harriet Martineau, Talbot Baines Reed and Dinah Mulock (Mrs. Craik).

Click here to view the full article from Disability Studies Quarterly

Dunlap. Barbara
"Reading Charlotte M. Yonge into the novels of Barbara Pym" in
All This Reading: The Literary World of Barbara Pym
Ed. Frauke Elisabeth Lenckos and Ellen J. Miller
ISBN: 0838639569
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press 2003

(From the publisher's website)
Lenckos and Miller divide these 19 essays on the brilliant British novelist Barbara Pym (1915-80) into two parts. After brief essay on Pym's Life, the first ten essays concern "the significance of reading" in her novels and address such topics as the importance of literature to her characters, the "position of the female reader in literature," the role of the library in the lives of Pym and of her characters, "the amused observation and mild sense of irony" in Some Tame Gazell, and her autobiographical metaphors of aging and dying in three novels. The remaining nine essays, on "the literary encounters and collaborations" in Pym's life and works, concern her relationship to her publisher; the comfort of her work offered John Bayley as his wife, Iris Murdoch, succumbed to Alzheimer's; her epistolary relationship to Philip Larkin; the effect of the novels of Charlotte M. Yonge on Pym's work. Pym writes of those whose lives would otherwise be unnoticed. These essays probe the subtleties, undercurrents, and connections in her work, both to other novels and to the reading public. As Hazel Holt, Pym's literary executor, observes, "once you've read the novels, she is with you forever."

Dunlap, Barbara
"Charlotte Yonge: Embodying the Domestic Fiction"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 6 (2003), pp 2-11.

Dunlap, Barbara
"On the track of Percy's The Crusaders"
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 9 (2009), pp 12-19.

Eliot, Simon
A Measure of Popularity: UK Public Library Holdings of Twenty-four Popular Authors, 1883-1912
(Oxford and Bristol, 1992), 47 pp. Price £2.00 (UK), £4.00 (overseas).

The twenty-four authors covered are Harrison Ainsworth, R.M. Ballantyne, Walter Besant, M.E. Braddon, William Black, R.D. Blackmore, Rhoda Broughton, Wilkie Collins, Marie Corelli, Charles Dickens, H. Rider Haggard, E. Bulwer Lytton, Margaret Oliphant, James Payn, G.W.M. Reynolds, Walter Scott, R.L. Stevenson, Anthony Trollope, Mark Twain, Jules Verne, Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mrs. Henry Wood, and Charlotte Yonge. The work is divided into three chapters (1883-92, 1893-1902, 1903-12) and surveys over eighty library catalogues from England and Scotland.

Engert, Jeremy F.
Yonge : pedigrees, arms, crests and mottoes / collated and laid out by J.F. Engert.
Eastleigh : "In the tracks of the LSWR (family history society)", 1996.
91 p : geneal tables ; 21 cm. Includes index. (Bodley)

Evans, Daniela
"Childhood Trauma and Attachment in Charlotte Yonge"
Paper given at Childhood in its Time: The Child in British Literature International Conference
Canterbury Christ Church University, UK (March 2009)

Fasick, Laura
The Quandary of Influence: The Case of Mary Ward and Charlotte Yonge.
, 1880-1920. 37, no. 2, (1994): 141-154

Fessler, Audrey Ann
Intellectuality and female sexuality in the novels of Charlotte Yonge
Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan, Diss., 1995
No further details available.

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Gender Norms and Social Reforms in The Clever Woman of the Family."
Unpublished paper given at the 2006 Victorians Institute Conference: Gender and Victorian Reform

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Minding Charlotte Yonge and Her Intellectual Girls."
Unpublished paper given at the Victorians Institute 2008 Conference: Disrupting Victorian Studies: Inconvenient Facts, Shocking Discoveries, Surprising Events, Forgotten Voices, Unknown Writings, Mangled Texts

Fessler, Audrey Ann
"Feminist Social Reform and the Problems with Patriarchy in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of the Family."
Gender and Victorian Reform. Ed. Anita Rose
Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008. 46-57.
ISBN13: 978-1-4438-0067-9.     ISBN : 1-4438-0067-8

Fiamengo, Janice
"Forms of Suffering in Charlotte Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family."
The Victorian Review Volume 25, Number 2 (Winter 2000) pp. 80-105.

Foster, Shirley
“Unpublished Letters of C. M. Yonge.”
Notes and Queries 17 (1970): 339–41.

Foster, Shirley, and Simons, Judy
What Katy read : feminist re-readings of "classic" stories for girls.
London: Macmillan, 1995
Iowa City : University of Iowa Press, 1995
ISBN: 0877454930

Introduction -- Susan Warner: The wide, wide world -- Charlotte Yonge: The Daisy Chain -- Louisa May Alcott: Little Women -- Susan Coolidge: What Katy did -- E. Nesbit: The Railway Children -- L.M. Montgomery: Anne of Green Gables -- Frances Hodgson Burnett: The Secret Garden -- Angela Brazil: The Madcap of the School. Includes bibliographical references and index.

From the Publisher's Website:
What Katy Read focuses on a much neglected area of literary criticism: literature for girls. Written by women for children, such texts have been doubly marginalized by the critical establishment. Shirley Foster and Judy Simons use twentieth-century feminist critical practice to open up fresh perspectives on popular fiction for girls written between 1850 and 1920. The study analyses both American and British novels for girls which have acquired 'classic' status, from the domestic myth to the school story, and considers their scope and influence in providing role models for girl readers.

From Library Journal:
Intrigued that generations of women have read and relished the same juvenile books, scholars Foster and Simons re-examine eight classics of girls' fiction from the perspective of 20th-century feminist critics. Among the British and American titles they scrutinize, those most familiar to present-day U.S. readers include Little Women, The Secret Garden, What Katy Did, and Anne of Green Gables. The texts are analyzed with the aim of defining the genre (fiction written by women for children), explaining the sociohistorical context of the works, and discovering why and how the novels "spoke to their age and continue to speak to today's." This soundly researched study offers insightful and provocative views of literate women and the books they have written and read. Highly recommended for all literature collections.– Carol A. McAllister, Coll. of William & Mary Lib., Williamsburg, Virginia.

"Models to the Universe": Victorian Hegemony and the Construction of Feminine Identity.
Dissertation, Ball State University, 1999

Click here for PDF of this dissertation

Gere, Charlotte and Rudoe, Judy
Jewellery in the Age of Queen Victoria: a Mirror to the World
British Museum Press, 544 pp.
ISBN 9780714128191kj

From a review of this book by Giles Waterfield in The Art Newspaper issue 215, July-August 2010:

While aware of current critical analyses of the rise of consumerist culture in the 19th century, Gere and Rudoe interpret and discuss jewellery as far as possible through the eyes of contemporaries. Descriptions offered by designers and manufacturers in the developing field of mass marketing, exhibition catalogues, reactions in the press and from private individuals, the use of jewels in Victorian fiction (notably in the novels of Charlotte Yonge, where “a moral agenda for jewellery…becomes an overriding tendency”) and the rich evidence provided by a range of painted and photographic portraits, create a richly textured study of the role played by this (often deeply eccentric) aspect of material culture.

Click here for the full text of this review online.

Green, David Bonnell
"Two popular novelists of the ‘fifties and their publisher: letters from G. J. Whyte-Melville and Charlotte M. Yonge to John William Parker, Jr"
Notes and Queries, New Series, (X), 1963, pp. 450-454.

Girton College, Cambridge
Personal Papers of Charlotte Yonge  
2 boxed of papers - for details follow the link above.

G. N. S. H.
"Charlotte M. Yonge's 'The Daisy Chain'."
Notes and Queries CXCV (November 1950)

This piece seems to be followed by a reply by A.J.H, published in November 1950. Click here to see the reference.

Hale, Elizabeth
"Disability and the individual talent: Adolescent girlhood in The Pillars Of The House and What Katy Did."

Special issue of Women's Writing on Charlotte Yonge.
Volume 17 Issue 2 2010 (click for full details of this issue)

Publisher's abstract: This essay examines how Charlotte Yonge and Susan Coolidge suggest that temporary disability is a crucial stage in the development of talented teenage girls. During periods of enforced disability, Yonge's brilliant artist, Geraldine Underwood, in The Pillars of the House (1873), and Coolidge's word magician, Katy Carr, in What Katy Did (1872), gain self-mastery and mastery of their talent, and become the heart of the house. Disability thus symbolizes the struggle to come of age for intelligent and talented young women in books for young readers.


Hampshire Review (no author identified as yet - please click here to tell us if you have more details)
"Charlotte Yonge of Otterbourne."
Hampshire Review, 14, Winter 1952-53, pp 57-9


Hayter, Alethea
Charlotte Yonge  
(Writers and their Work Series). 
(Plymouth: Northcote House / British Council, 1996)
ISBN 0746307810

Read Alison Shell's review of this book in the Review of the Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship.

Hayter, Alethea
Introduction to Charlotte M. Yonge, The Trial, pp. v-viii. 
(Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1996)

back to index

Heath, Michelle Beissel
“The Uncroquetable Lawn”: Charlotte Yonge and Lewis Carroll Play at Mallets and Hoops.”
Romantic and Victorian Entertainments: Graduate Student Literature Conference. University of South Carolina. Columbia, SC. March 2007.

Heath, Michelle Beissel
“Redeeming ‘the Uncroquetable Lawn’: Charlotte Yonge, Flirtatious Hoops, and Family Time.”
British Women Writers Association (BWWA) annual conference. Iowa City. April 2009.

Hicks Beach, William, Mrs.
Amabel and Mary Verena; an epilogue.
(London: Faber and Faber, 1945)

Written as a sequel to Charlotte Mary Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe

Hickey, Julia Anne
Childhood and the "rites of passage" in the novels of Charlotte Yonge and George MacDonald
M.A. thesis (1994)
University of Kent at Canturbury.
No further details available

Hill, Georgina O’Brien
see O’Brien Hill, Georgina


“Charlotte Yonge.”
Nineteenth Century British Women Writers, 415-419.
Ed. Abigail Bloom.
Westport 2000.

back to index

Hoff, Catharine Mary
Images of mid-Victorian women: the popular fiction of Yonge, Craik and Oliphant.
1981 252 pages.
Dissertation, Indiana Univ
No further details available

for Holmes, Martha Stoddard
see Stoddard Holmes, Martha


Hope Dodds, Madeleine
"Jane Austen and Charlotte M Yonge."
Notes and Queries (1948) 193, pp 476-8

(on common acquaintances: the Bigg Withers of Manydown and the Heathcotes of Hursley) - David Gilson/Hantsphere

Hu, Esther T.
“West Meets East: Charlotte Yonge, Missionaries, and China in the Victorian Literary Imagination.”
Unpublished paper given at British Women Writers Conference, April 2010

Hutton, R. H.
“Ethical and Dogmatic Fiction: Miss Yonge.”
National Review 12 (January 1861), 211-30.

Index makers: Charlotte Yonge, 1823-1901.
The Indexer : journal of the Society of Indexers. 17, no. 3, (April 1991)
ISSN: 0019-4131

Innerd, Jane Anna
“An investigation into the effects of the Victorian notions of duty and obedience on the domestic novels of Charlotte Mary Yonge.”
Doctoral Thesis - University of Durham (1973)

Innes, Kathleen Elizabeth Royds

Hampshire pilgrimages; men and women who have sojourned in Hampshire: Jane Austen, Charlotte Mary Yonge, Florence Nightingale, Gilbert White, William Cobbett, Dr. Joseph Stevens [and] lovers of Test and Itchen.
(London: W. Sessions, 1948)

Jay, Elisabeth
‘Charlotte Yonge’s “Gleanings" from the Rev. John Keble.’
Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship Journal 1997, pp.28-33

Jay, Elisabeth
"Charlotte Mary Yonge and Tractarian Aesthetics"
Victorian Poetry - Volume 44, Number 1, Spring 2006, pp. 43-59

Click here to read the opening paragraphs of this article

Johnson, Maria Poggi
A sober standard of feeling : the Christian moral life in John Keble and Charlotte Yonge.
Diss. Relig. Studies 1996

Ph. D Thesis – University of Virginia, 1996
208 leaves ; 29 cm
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 198-208)

"Next to a sound rule of faith, there is nothing of so much consequence as a sober standard of feeling in matters of practical religion; and it is the peculiar happiness of the Church of England to possess, in her authorized formularies, an ample and secure provision for both. But in times of much leisure and unbounded curiosity, when excitement of every kind is sought after with a morbid eagerness, this part of the merit of our Liturgy, is likely in some measure to be lost, on many even of its sincere admirers: the very tempers which most require such discipline, setting themselves, in general, most decidedly against it." Advertisement for Keble's "Christian Year" (1837)

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The King, the Priest and the Armorer: A Victorian Historical Fantasy of the Via Media."
CLIO, Vol. 28, 1999

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The Reason for What is Right: Practical Wisdom in John Keble and Charlotte Yonge"
In Literature and Theology 2006 20(4):379-393

Click here to inspect the first page of this article. You can also buy the article online.

Johnson, Maria Poggi 
"The slave and the stumbling block:Charlotte Yonge's portrayal of primitive Christianity in The Slaves of Sabinus."
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 30-35.

back to index

Jordan, Ellen; Mitchell, Charlotte and Schinske, Helen
'"A Handmaid to the Church": How John Keble Shaped the Work and Career of Charlotte M.Yonge, the "Novelist of the Oxford Movement"'
in Kirstie Blair (ed),
John Keble and His Contexts.
London: Anthem Press, 2004.
ISBN 1 84331 147 X

Jordan, Ellen
'Charlotte M. Yonge, Woman of Letters.'
Princeton University Library Chronicle. 65 (2003): 451-478.

Jordan, Ellen
'"I am too high church and too narrow";
Charlotte Yonge, Macmillan and the Sunday Library.'
Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship Journal. 6 (2003): 12-25.
ISSN: 14660938

Jordan, Ellen
"The Magazine For The Young: An Example From The World Of Small Sectarian Publications."
Paper delivered at Characters of the Press - Fortieth Annual Conference of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals
Roehampton University, London , U.K. 4-5 July 2008.

From the Roehampton Conference abstract (downloads and opens a large PDF document)

The Magazine for the Young ... lasted from 1842 to 1875 and was initially directed at working-class children and adolescents. It was founded in 1842 by Elizabeth and Marianne Dyson, the wife and sister of a Hampshire clergymen, who were deeply involved in visiting the poor of their village and supervising the education of the parish’s children, and who also had ambitions to be writers of fiction.

Marianne had already published a number of small books for children, and the publisher of one of them, James Burns, of 17 Portman Street, London, undertook the production and distribution of the magazine. After a year they passed the editorship to Anne Mozley, a member of a publishing family whose imprint often appeared with that of Burns, and in 1844, Charlotte M. Yonge, a country neighbour of the Dysons whose first novel had been published jointly by Burns and Mozley, became a regular contributor. Both these women, though they maintained their connection with the Magazine for the Young to the end, later made names for themselves in a much wider sphere. ... Under Anne Mozley’s guidance the focus of the magazine narrowed to a younger age group, but broadened to include a wider class range, some of Charlotte Yonge’s contributions, Countess Kate and The Stokesley Secret for example, dealing with pre-adolescent children from the gentry and aristocracy. This paper will suggest that though the magazine preserved the moralistic tone and sectarian bias inherited from its founders, it was the expertise of these two later contributors that enabled it to avoid the sentimentality and weak piety so often characteristic of religious journals addressed to this audience, and so earned it Christabel Coleridge’s encomium.

Juckett, Elizabeth
“Cross-Gendering the Underwoods: Christian Subjection in Charlotte Yonge’s Pillars of the House"
in Antifeminism and the Victorian Novel - Rereading Nineteenth-Century Women Writers
Ed Tamara S. Wagner (2009)
ISBN: 9781604976076 

Kenney, Susan McIlvaine
Preface to Charlotte M. Yonge's The Daisy Chain.
Garland Library of Children's Classics, 1975.

Kolshus, Thorgeir and Hovdhaugen, Even
"Reassessing the death of Bishop John Coleridge Patteson"
The Journal of Pacific History
Volume 45, Issue 3, 2010 pages 331-355.

Extensive discussion of the Patterson story, including the Yonge's Life of John Coleridge Patteson, Missionary Bishop the Melanesian Islands

Click here for Journal details, article abstract, full text of article, and author biographies

Kyriaki Hadjiafxendi, Patricia Zakreski
What Is a Woman to Do?: A Reader on Women, Work and Art, C. 1830-1890
Peter Lang, 2010 - 388 pages
ISBN 978-3-03911-116-9 pb.
ISBN 978-3-0353-0062-8 (eBook)

(from Google Books / the Publisher: This anthology contributes to a scholarly understanding of the aesthetics and economics of female artistic labour in the Victorian period. It maps out the evolution of the Woman Question in a number of areas, including the status and suitability of artistic professions for women, their engagement with new forms of work and their changing relationship to the public sphere. The wealth of material gathered here - from autobiographies, conduct manuals, diaries, periodical articles, prefaces and travelogues - traces the extensive debate on women's art, feminism and economics from the 1830s to the 1890s. Combining for the first time nineteenth-century criticism on literature and the visual arts, performance and craftsmanship, the selected material reveals the different ideological positions surrounding the transition of women from idleness to serious occupation. The distinctive primary sources explore the impact of artistic labour upon perceptions of feminine sensibility and aesthetics, the conflicting views of women towards the pragmatics of their own creative labour as they encompassed vocations, trades and professions, and the complex relationship between paid labour and female fame and notoriety.

Contains an introduction to and a section from "Money-Making", a chapter from Charlotte Yonge's Womankind (1877). The entire text of Womankind is available from this website's Her Works section (click link on the left).


LaCom, Cindy
"It is more than Lame: Physical Disability in Charlotte Yonge's The Clever Woman of the Family and Anthony Trollope's Barchester Towers."
Paper given at The Discourse of Disability Conference / Congreso Otras Habilidades
3-6 March 1993 University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüe

Lang, Tig
"Miss Yonge and the supernatural."
Journal of the Charlotte M Yonge Fellowship, 8 (2008), pp 36-40.

Langbauer, Laurie
Novels of Everyday Life : The Series in English Fiction, 1850-1930
ISBN: 0801485010 - Cornell University Press 1999

Lawson, Kate
“Indian Mutiny/English Mutiny: National Governance in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of the Family”
Unpublished paper given at the 2010 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)

Lawson, Kate
“A Domestic Invasion: The Army in Charlotte Mary Yonge' s The Clever Woman of the Family”
Unpublished paper given at the May 2008 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)

Lawson, Kate
“Becoming English: Travel and Tourism in Charlotte Yonge’s The Clever Woman of theFamily”
Unpublished paper given at the May 2008 Conference of ACCUTE (Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English)
(Unconfirmed title ??? - compare entry immediately above)

Leavis, Q D
'Charlotte Yonge and 'Christian Discrimination'
in Collected Essays: The Novel of Religious Controversy
Cambridge University Press - ISBN: 052126703X

This third volume of Q. D. Leavis’s essays brings together pieces on hitherto unexplored aspects of Victorian literature. Most of these date from towards the end of her life and are previously unpublished. There are also essays and reviews which appeared originally in Scrutiny. Mrs Leavis focuses on the novel of religious controversy, the Anglo-Irish novel, women writers of the nineteenth-century, and certain aspects of George Eliot’s work. She examines these, and other relevant writing, from literary, historical and sociological points of view. The volume affords valuable new insights into nineteenth-century literature, and affirms Mrs Leavis’s standing as a pioneering and penetrating critic. (from the CUP website for this book)

(University of Wisconsin--Parkside)
"Unknown to History: Charlotte Yonge as a Historian, Novelist, and Writer for Children"
10th Annual 18th- and 19th-Century British Women Writers Conference
Evolving Domains of Knowledge and Representation
BWWC 2002

Losano, Antonia
"Disfigurements: Aesthetics and the Woman Painter in Charlotte Yonge and Dinah Craik Mulock"
Paper given at Reconfigurations: Visual Arts in the Literary Realm
Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century British Women Writers Conference,
UNC-Chapel Hill, March 26-29, 1998.

Losano, Antonia Jaqueline
The woman painter in Victorian literature
The Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 2008
ISBN-13: 978-0-8142-1081-9
ISBN-10: 0-8142-1081-3

Chapter 6: Disfigurement and Beauty in Dinah Craik and Charlotte Yonge

From a review of this chapter by Brenda R. Weber, Indiana University, in Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies Issue 5.1 (Spring 2009)

Charlotte Mary Yonge

Yonge, aged 35

Born(1823-08-11)11 August 1823
Otterbourne, Hampshire, England
Died24 May 1901(1901-05-24) (aged 77)
Otterbourne, Hampshire, England
Period19th century
GenreChildren's literature

Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823–1901) was an English novelist who wrote to the service of the church. Her books helped to spread the influence of the Oxford Movement. Her abundant work is mostly out of print.


Charlotte Mary Yonge was born in Otterbourne, Hampshire, England, on 11 August 1823 to William Yonge and Fanny Yonge, née Bargus. She was educated at home by her father, studying Latin, Greek, French, Euclid, and algebra. Her father's lessons could be harsh:

He required a diligence and accuracy that were utterly alien to me. He thundered at me so that nobody could bear to hear it, and often reduced me to tears, but his approbation was so delightful that it was a delicious stimulus... I believe, in spite of all breezes over my innate slovenliness, it would have broken our hearts to leave off working together. And we went on till I was some years past twenty.

Yonge's devotion to her father was lifelong and her relationship with him seems to have been for her the standard for all other relationships, including marriage. His "approbation was throughout life my bliss; his anger my misery for the time."[5]

She was born into a religious family background, was devoted to the High Church, and much influenced by John Keble, Vicar of Hursley from 1835, a near neighbour and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. Yonge is herself sometimes referred to as "the novelist of the Oxford Movement", as her novels frequently reflect the values and concerns of Anglo-Catholicism. She remained in Otterbourne all her life and for 71 years was a teacher in the village Sunday school.

In 1868 a new parish was formed to the south of Yonge's home village of Otterbourne; the parish was to contain the villages of Eastley and Barton. Yonge donated £500 towards the parish church and was asked to choose which of the two villages the parish should be named after. She chose Eastley, but decided that it should be spelt Eastleigh as she perceived this as being more modern.[8]

Yonge died in her hometown of Otterbourne on 24 May 1901. Her obituary in The Times said:[9]

Her friends, and especially her poorer neighbours, knew both the strength and the winning charm of her character. Thus the late Archbishop Benson noted in his diary her 'odd majesty and kindliness, which are very strong'.

But it is of course as a writer that Miss Yonge will be remembered. She had an inventive mind and a ready pen, and a bare list of the books written or edited by her would probably occupy nearly a whole column of The Times. She wrote chiefly for young people, especially young girls, and her books are the result not only of a strong ethical purpose, but also of her firm devotion to the High Church view of Christian doctrine and practice.

Literary career[edit]

She began writing in 1848, and published during her long life about 160 works, chiefly novels. Her first commercial success, The Heir of Redclyffe (1853), provided the funding to enable the schooner Southern Cross to be put into service on behalf of George Selwyn. Similar charitable works were done with the profits from later novels. Yonge was also a founder and editor for forty years of The Monthly Packet, a magazine (founded in 1851) with a varied readership, but targeted at British Anglican girls (in later years it was addressed to a somewhat wider readership).[10]

Among the best known of her works are The Heir of Redclyffe, Heartsease, and The Daisy Chain. A Book of Golden Deeds is a collection of true stories of courage and self-sacrifice. She also wrote Cameos from English History, Life of John Coleridge Patteson: Missionary Bishop of the Melanesian Islands, and Hannah More. Her History of Christian Names was described as "the first serious attempt at tackling the subject" and as the standard work on names in the preface to the first edition of Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names (1944).

Around 1859 Yonge created a literary group made up of younger girl cousins in order that they could write essays and gain advice from Yonge on their writing. Together they created "The Barnacle" and this collaboration continued until about 1871. This was valuable as this may have been the last generation of girls to be educated at home.[11] Her goddaughter, Alice Mary Coleridge contributed as the name of "Gurgoyle" from the first issue drawing the covers and contributing translations, articles and verses.[10]

Her personal example and influence on her goddaughter, Alice Mary Coleridge, played a formative role in Coleridge's zeal for women's education and thus, indirectly, led to the foundation of Abbots Bromley School for Girls.[10]

After her death, her friend, assistant and collaborator, Christabel Coleridge, published the biographical Charlotte Mary Yonge: her Life and Letters (1903).


Yonge's work was widely read and respected in the nineteenth century. Among her admirers were Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, William Ewart Gladstone, Charles Kingsley, Christina Rossetti, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, and Anthony Trollope.William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones read The Heir of Redclyffe aloud to each other while undergraduates at Oxford University and "took [the hero, Guy Morville's] medieval tastes and chivalric ideals as presiding elements in the formation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood." Yonge's work was compared favourably with that of Trollope, Jane Austen, Honoré de Balzac, Gustave Flaubert, and Émile Zola.

Sir John Arthur Ransome Marriott wrote of her:

Charlotte Yonge (1823–1902) was not only a prolific novelist, but a serious student of history, especially in its personal aspects. Having dealt in The Constable's Tower with Hubert de Burgh, with his famous defence of Dover Castle against Prince Louis of France (1213), and his still more famous victory at sea off Sandwich, and with Edward I as a crusader (The Prince and the Page), Miss Yonge drew on the Vie de Bertrand du Guesclin as well as on Froissart for her fascinating tale The Lances of Lynwood. With characteristic modesty she expressed the hope that her sketch might "serve as an inducement to some young readers to make acquaintance with the delectable old Canon (Froissart) for themselves". The wise, of all ages, will fulfil her hope.

So popular were her works that

A midshipman was able to supply from memory a missing page in his ship's copy of The Daisy Chain. An officer in the Guards, asked in a game of "Confessions" what his prime object in life was, answered that it was to make himself like Guy Morville, hero of The Heir of Redclyffe.

C. S. Lewis thought very highly of Yonge, at one point bracketing her evocations of domestic life with those of Homer and Leo Tolstoy.

Abraham Kuyper, who read The Heir of Redclyffe on the recommendation of his fiancé, Johanna Schaay, found it to be a very moving experience and wrote that the novel was "next to the Bible in its meaning for my life."

According to critic Catherine Sandbach-Dahlström, Yonge's work has been "constantly be-deviled" by a "tendency to confuse the moral quality of [her] view of life with the quality of her literary expression".[18]

Yonge's work has been little studied, with the possible exception of The Heir of Redclyffe.[19]


  • Abbeychurch; Or, Self-Control and Self-Conceit,1844
  • The Heir of Redclyffe, 1853
  • The Daisy Chain, or Aspirations,1856
  • A Book of Golden Deeds,1864
  • The Trial; Or, More Links of the Daisy Chain, 1864
  • The Clever Woman of the Family, 1865
  • The Prince and the Page: A Story of the Last Crusade,1866
  • The Dove in the Eagle's Nest, 1866
  • The Chaplet of Pearls,1868
  • Cameos from English History, from Rollo to Edward II, 1868
  • Aunt Charlotte's Stories of Greek History,1873
  • Young Folks' History of Rome,1878
  • Young Folks' History of England, 1879
  • Unknown to History, A Story of the Captivity of Mary of Scotland, 1881
  • History of France, 1882
  • The Armourer's Prentices, 1884
  • A Reputed Changeling, 1889
  • Two Penniless Princesses, 1891
  • The Little Duke, Richard the Fearless, 1905

See also[edit]



  1. ^Quoted in Sturrock 1995, p. 17.
  2. ^Lambert, Tim. "A Brief History of Eastleigh". A World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  3. ^"Charlotte Yonge: Her Life and Context". Charlotte Mary Yonge Fellowship. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
  4. ^ abcChancellor, V. (2004-09-23). Coleridge, Alice Mary (1846–1907), promoter of girls' schools. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 22 Dec. 2017, see link
  5. ^Claudia Nelson; Lynne Vallone (1 June 2010). The Girl's Own: Cultural Histories of the Anglo-American Girl, 1830-1915. University of Georgia Press. pp. 72–79. ISBN 978-0-8203-3695-4. 
  6. ^Sandbach-Dahlström 1984, p. 3.
  7. ^Sandbach-Dahlström 1984, p. 8.

Works cited[edit]

Coleridge, Christabel (1903). Charlotte Mary Yonge: Her Life and Letters. London: Macmillan and Company. 
Cross, F. L., ed. (1957). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. London: Oxford University Press. 
Dennis, Barbara (1992). Charlotte Yonge (1823–1901): Novelist of the Oxford Movement. Lewiston, New York: E. Mellen Press. 
Hayter, Alethea (1996). Charlotte Yonge. Plymouth, England: Northcote House. 
Kuyper, Abraham (1998). "Confidentially". In Bratt, James D.Abraham Kuyper: A Centennial Reader. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 46–61. ISBN 978-0-8028-4321-0. 
Lewis, C. S. (1949). "Membership". The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses. New York: Macmillan. OL 6047552M. 
Marriott, John (1940). English History in English Fiction. London: Blackie & Son. Retrieved 16 December 2017. 
Sandbach-Dahlström, Catherine (1984). Be Good Sweet Maid: Charlotte Yonge's Domestic Fiction. Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell International. ISBN 978-91-22-00658-9. 
Sturrock, June (1995). "Heaven and Home": Charlotte M. Yonge's Domestic Fiction and the Victorian Debate Over Women. Victoria, British Columbia: University of Victoria. ISBN 978-0-920604-84-7. 

Further reading[edit]

Baker, Ernest A. (1957). The History of the English Novel. 8. New York: Barnes & Noble. 
Battiscombe, Georgina (1943). Charlotte M. Yonge: The History of an Uneventful Life. London: Constable and Co. 
Battiscombe, Georgina; Laski, Marghanita, eds. (1965). A Chaplet for Charlotte Yonge. London: Cresset Press. 
Budge, Gavin (2003). "Realism and Typology in Charlotte M. Yonge's The Heir of Redclyffe". Victorian Literature and Culture. 31 (1): 193–223. doi:10.1017/S106015030300010X. ISSN 1470-1553. JSTOR 25058620. 
Cooper, Edward H. (1901). "Charlotte Mary Yonge". The Fortnightly Review. 75: 852–858. 
Cruse, Amy (1935). The Victorians and Their Reading. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
Dennis, Barbara (1988). Introduction. The Daisy Chain. By Yonge, Charlotte M. London: Virago. ISBN 978-0-86068-879-2. 
 ———  (1997). Introduction. The Heir of Redclyffe. By Yonge, Charlotte M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283132-3. 
Jay, Elisabeth (2004). "Yonge, Charlotte Mary (1823–1901)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37065. 
Johnson, R. Brimley (1918). The Women Novelists. London: W. Collins Sons & Co. 
Leavis, Q. D. (1944). "Charlotte Yonge and 'Christian Discrimination'". Scrutiny. 12: 152–160. 
Mare, Margaret; Percival, Alicia C. (1947). Victorian Best-Seller: The World of Charlotte M. Yonge. London: George G. Harrap. 
Romanes, Ethel (1908). Charlotte Mary Yonge: An Appreciation. London: A. R. Mowbray. 
Salmon, Edward G. (1886). "What Girls Read". The Nineteenth Century. Vol. 20 no. 116. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. pp. 515–529. 
Sichel, Edith (1917). "Charlotte Yonge as a Chronicler". New and Old. London: Constable and Company. pp. 141–150. 
Walton, Susan (2010). Imagining Soldiers and Fathers in the Mid-Victorian Era: Charlotte Yonge's Models of Manliness. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-6959-3. 
Wells-Cole, Catherine (2000). "Angry Yonge Men: Anger and Masculinity in the Novels of Charlotte M. Yonge". In Bradstock, Andrew; Gill, Sean; Hogan, Anne; Morgan, Sue. Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press. 
Yonge, Charlotte Mary (2007). Mitchell, Charlotte; Jordan, Ellen; Schinske, Helen, eds. The Letters of Charlotte Mary Yonge (1823–1901). London: School of Advanced Study. 

External links[edit]

Charlotte Mary Yonge later in life

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