Research Paper Truancy Among Students

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES OF TRUANCY AMONG STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA,

 EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this project is to deal with the problem of truancy with particular reference to influence of peer group, inadequate school materials, poor feeding at home, poor meth0od of teaching, too much work in the morning at home before coming to the school etc. in Ikpoba Okha Secondary School Students, Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area in Edo State of Nigeria. In this project, I have tried to find out the cause of the above problem in this particular school. This project and deals with what other authors said are the possible causes and solutions to the problems. To get the actual causes of this problem, oral interviews were conducted for various groups of people in the school and the community. Some causes of the problem of the study were identified; solutions and recommendation which the reader shall come across were highlighted. If the community and the government jointly implement the recommendations given, future occurrence of similar problems in Ikpoba Okha Secondary School Students can be averted.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One 

Background to the study

Statement of the problems

Purpose of the study

Significant of the study

Research questions

Scope of the study

Assumption

Limitations

Definition of terms

Chapter Two            

Review of related literature

Poverty

The function of the parents

Bullying on the student

Uninteresting lesson

The role of the teacher

Chapter Three

Methodology

Research design

Population for the study

Sample and sampling techniques

Instrumentation

Validation

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Data analysis, presentation and discussion of results

Chapter Five            

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

References   

Questionnaires

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

            The origin of truancy among secondary school students situated at Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The schools in Ikpoba Okha are divided it names from the clan of origin in the early state, the population of the school were few but now they are vast. Today, among the students of the schools there was many truants and deviant behaviour has greatly hindered the progress of the schools generally. I have taken it up as a responsibility to find out the causes of the truancy and the way to stop the evil. This long essay on the causes of truancy is intended to take a critical look into one or the major rules that influence students to the truancy in secondary schools. Some of the truants students will go with their fellow students to indulge in watch video in their own resident.

            Justice R. A. L. Ogbobin, said that broken homes are assess to truancy. Truancy is a great danger in a discipline school possibly the whole students in the school to delinquent. This is true because students initiative and don’t at the moment realized the consequences of their delinquency. The measuring of the truancy in the secondary school students, I shall be taking a random sample of the truants find out from that the cause of truancy from their homes, schools and the society they live. It is against this research in the solution of the above measure of truancy and not far fetch. The teacher should advice the parents of the students to provide the students with adequate or requisite school materials and also let parents know the problem if causes failing to do so, teacher should not bully on the students, because hinder the students backwardness. A student should be corrected by the teacher. The government should go further to make law to punish those couples whose home are broken leaving the children to play truancy.

            It is against this background that this research work is structured to examine the factors and consequences (effects) of truancy on students of origin and destination which will be vividly focused on Benin City. I shall finally suggest suitable measures that should help to reduce the evil.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

            Over a long period of time the problem of truancy among students in secondary school a drift has been a serious one which generated a matter of concerns among scholars. This problems of truancy has militated against the goals and objectives setup by the parents and our educational policy makers for the education. the daily reduction of this students due to truancy in a school also creates a high rate of absenteeism this leads to the poor result of the students truancy can mislead some students to different kinds of crime of the following:

a.                  Stealing

b.                  Fighting

c.                  Understanding type of activities that are worthless

d.                  Using and bullying on people

In this research, my mere writing can not put a stop to the problem of truancy; but can do so by suggesting way to be carried out by the government and education authorities. A student may be naturally gifted if he becomes a delinquent in the school, he can not develop his innate potentialities to the fullest. Truancy is a common in the life of the students themselves their parents and in turn development of a nation.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

            The purpose of the study include as follows:

i.                    To examine the causes of truancy in secondary school students.

ii.                 To know the purpose why students exposed (indulge) to truancy.

iii.               To investigate the leading factor to truancy among students.

iv.               To put forward some recommendations on the effects of truancy in the life of the students.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY     

            The study of the causes of truancy in the society is advantageous. As the evil can easily spread as wildfire, it should be stopped to avoid many students falling into it as victims. If the evil in our school and other similar sources, the students will have the assess to perform well in school activities. Any where the clever ones have the chance to go higher. Students are exposed to the pleasure of good loves of school environment where by they interacts for the development of their society. facing the solution of these crimes like lateness to school, serving as a bus conductor during school hours, hunting birds in the bush at the time they are supported to be in school, wikll be drastically there reduced.

Finally, this study and research finding will also be significant in such a way that it will serve as a pointer to other research who may be interested in the study.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS  

a.                  What are the factors responsible for truancy in secondary school students?

b.                  What are the effects of truancy in the life of t he students in secondary schools

c.                  Why do the students so easily get involved in truancy?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

            The focus and the coverage of this research work is on Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The choice of the area is based on that fact that the area is the researchers place of on central origin and that the research is very conversant with the area. There is no doubt because the study will give a relative and reliable picture of this situation in other similar areas of Edo State.

ASSUMPTION

            This research is designed to entertain many main and sub problems. According to P. O. Adeyomo assume that the following causes of truancy are common in the society which are:

a.                  keeping in a bad company

b.                  Uninteresting lesson of the teacher

c.                  Teacher as a truant

d.                  Lack of school materials

e.                  Failures to comply with school requirements

f.                   The students keeping awake near by all the right and does not get up early enough to prepare for school.

g.                  Laziness on the part of school students.

Although this study is restricted to the teachers and students. Because the investigator is interested in the factors in the school.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Truancy – This could be defined as the practice by which the students leave home for school but do not reach their destination rather they stay mid way between home and school when school close. They return carry their boxes or bags and go home in accompany of their mates in the pretence that they have close or returned from school.

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Counselors and Teachers Ranking of Factors Causing Truancy Among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria

Eremie MD*

Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Technical and Science Education, University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Eremie MD
Department of Educational Foundations,
Faculty of Technical and Science Education
University of Science and Technology
Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria
Tel: +2348034827746
E-mail:[email protected]

Received date: April 13, 2015 Accepted date: August 28, 2015 Published date: September 07, 2015

Citation: Eremie MD (2015) Counselors and Teacher’s Ranking of Factors Causing Truancy Among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 5:163.

Copyright: © 2015 Eremie MD. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study was specifically designed to find out the following: (1) To know and understand the ranking of the causes of truancy among students by teachers and counsellors. (2) To set priority areas for counselling interventions. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated for the investigation. The study utilized descriptive survey method. The population of the study was JSS1 students in Port Harcourt, Obio-Akpor, and Okrika Local government areas. A sample size of 150 teachers and counsellors were used by simple random sampling. The Teachers/Counsellors Truancy Rating scale (TCSTRS) was used. The study concluded that: (1) There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. (2) There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors priority in selecting areas of counselling interventions in factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State. Four recommendations were made in the research paper.

Keywords

Counselors; Teachers; Secondary school students; Nigeria

Introduction

Truancy could be seen as absence from school for no tangible or legitimate reason. Students do skip classes for several hours or the whole day at least once or several days in the academic session. Truancy in a significant problem in Nigeria and other parts of the world, mostly under develop and developing countries [1]. The outcome of truancy among secondary school students has been linked to very serious short and long term consequences for pupils, youths, families, communities in Nigeria. Based on the above background, this researcher in interested to know and understand the perception of counsellors and teachers in ranking the causes of truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

Researchers have identified several possible causes of truancy among secondary school students. These are as follows: Individual risk factors, family factors, school factors, and community factors [2]. Individual risk factors could be attributed to low self-esteem, learning disabilities, substance abuse, deviance, maladaptive and personal distress [3].

Family factors could be seen as poor or unhealthy communication climate, in which continuous distrust is the center of relationship, resulting to lack of openness and trustworthiness. Also, single parent family structure could likely contribute to truancy among students. Parents play significant roles in the upbringing of children, which in greater extent interplay with parental personality. Authoritarian parents are restrictive and demonstrate lack of outward manifestation of love and warmth toward siblings, which could lead to truancy. Similarly, permissive parents sometimes called laizsez-fair do demonstrate little control over children, who in turn develop low-achieving skills, and lack social responsibility [4]. It is often said that “charity begins at home”, so one can equally say that children learning start at home with their parents or guardians. In Nigeria some parents of low socio economic status and illiteracy often engage their children in farming and petty trading during school periods, encouraging truancy [5].

School factors are not ruled out of possible causes of truancy among students in Rivers State public and private schools. Some teachers have been found to be very unfriendly, hostile to their class children. In some cases teachers skip class for their other daily activities, leaving the students unattended to, or being occupied by regularly monitored class activities. Such behaviors of teachers encouraged truancy among students [1,5]. Also, some of the school premises are occupied with uncompleted buildings serving as hideouts for students, as such, contributing to truancy.

In addition, community factors are noticeable contributors to truancy among students. Some communities in the rural and urban areas of Rivers State encourage drug activities, gangs and other criminal activities. In other words, some communities are insecure for students to attend classes without frequent communal clashes leading to loss of lives, including innocent children. Fear of the community where schools are sited could increase truancy [6].

Statement of the Problem

Maintaining school attendance has become a major concern of school administrators, governments and parents in many private and public schools, of which the concern is greater in public schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. This is because truancy has become more common over the years and has created serious problems in the educational system today in Rivers State, and the rest of Nigeria. Many factors such as: Student’s factors, family factors, school factors, and community factors have been researched and possible solutions recommended. But rating of scale of priority of intervention of the several factors mentioned has not been fully researched.

Purpose of the Study

Specifically, the study sought to find out the following:

1. To know and understand the ranking of the causes of truancy among students by teachers and counsellors.

2. To set priority areas for counsellng interventions

Research questions

1. How do secondary school teachers and counsellors rank the causes of truancy among students in secondary schools in Rivers State?

2. To what extent school counsellors can set priority areas for counselling interventions?

Hypotheses

H01: There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria.

H02: There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors priority in selecting areas of counselling interventions in factors causing truancy.

Method

The design of the study was a descriptive survey method. The population was JSS1, students in Port Harcourt, Obio-Akpor and Okirika Local Government Areas of Rivers State. The study utilized 150 teachers and counsellors, made of 90 teachers and 60 counsellors from 60 (sixty) randomly composed co-educational secondary schools. The instrument was the Teacher/Counsellors Students Truancy Rating Scale (TCSTRS). The instrument was developed by the researcher and validated by experts in measurement and evaluation. Reliability coefficient of 0.81 was established through Crombach Alpha. The “TCSTRS” was based on (Low=2, medium=3, and High=4, Highest=5) of which 5 is the highest rating of priority intervention of the factors causing truancy among students. The t-test was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

Result

Rating and Rank Order of Priority Intervention of causes of Truancy among Secondary Students by Teachers and Counsellors (90 teachers and 60 counsellors) is given in Table 1.

S/NoItemsRatingRank Order
 Student Factors  
1Poor self-concept, low self-esteem33rd
2Fear of school, teacher/administrators51 (1st priority intervention
3Emotional instability33
4Learning disabilities33
5Substance abuse42 (2nd priority)
6Deviance/Maladaptive33
 Family Factors  
1Unhealthy communication climate: Distrust3 
2Lack for value of education3 
3Financial difficulties3 
4Lack of parental control and supervision3 
5Used child for family/trading51st (priority intervention)
6Substance abuse parents42nd priority intervention
 School Factors  
1Uninteresting/irrelevant curriculture3 
2Teachers unfriendliness/hostile51st priority intervention
3Teachers skipping classes42nd priority intervention
4uncompleted buildings42nd priority intervention
5Poorly kept environment3 
 Community Factors  
1Lack of community support for schools3 
2Encouraging drug activities42nd priority intervention
3Insecurity: community classes51sr priority intervention
4Unsafe ennvironment.3 

Table 1: Rating and Rank Order of Priority Intervention of causes of Truancy among Secondary Students by Teachers and Counsellors (90 teachers and 60 counsellors).

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference between teachers and counselors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. The result is shown in Table 2.

VariablesNXSTDDFPt-calt-critDecision
Teachers
Counsellors
90
60
16.80
15.90
8.92
8.27
1480.05.7141.96NS

Table 2: The t-test Analysis of the mean and standard Deviation of Teachers and Counsellors ranking of factors causing truancy among Secondary School Students in Rivers State.

Table 2 shows that the calculated t-values is .714 while, the critical t-value is 1.96. since the calculated t-value is less than the critical t-value, the null hypothesis is accepted, indicating that there is no significant difference between teachers and counselors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State.

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors priority in selecting areas of counselling intervention in factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State.

Table 3 shows that the calculated t-values is .387 while, the critical t-values is 1.96. Since the calculated t-value is less than the critical t-value, the null hypothesis is accepted, indicating that there is no significant difference between teachers and counselors priority in selecting areas of counselling intervention in factors causing truancy.

VariablesNXSTDDFPt-calt-critDecision
Teachers
Counsellors
90
60
33.49
33.56
3.22
3.43
1480.05.3871.96NS

Table 3: The t-test Analysis of the mean and standard Deviation of teachers and counsellors priority in selecting areas of counselling interventions in factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State.

Discussion

This study investigated the following: (1) There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. (2) There is no significant difference between teachers and counselors priority in selecting areas of counselling interventions in factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State. The findings of this investigation revealed that teachers and counsellor ranking and prioritizing counselling intervention of factors causing truancy among students in secondary schools did not differ. The findings support that of Lotz and Lee [7] and Kilpatrick [8] indicating parental family influence as key contributory factor to increase truancy among students. Also, Unger and Laing concluded that youths that were allowed to work and attended school showed higher rate of absenteeism. Enomoto [9] supported that less caring teachers and administrators are contributory factor to truancy among students. Similarly, Wisconsin statues upheld that parental factors contributed highest factors of truancy among students in Wisconsin [10].

Conclusion

The study concluded that:

There is no significant difference between teachers and counsellors ranking of factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State, Nigeria. Both teachers and counsellors ranked parental factor (using child for farming/trading); school factor (fear of school, teacher/administrators) and community factor (insecurity/community clashes) were seen highest contributory factors.

There is no significant difference between teachers and counselors priority in selecting areas of counselling interventions in factors causing truancy among secondary school students in Rivers State. Nevertheless, the rankings of high and highest categories are for priority counselling interventions.

Recommendations

a. School counsellors should develop workshops to educate teachers and administrators, families, and communities on behaviour modification strategies.

b. Government should assist the school systems with adequate security services to check students leaving the school premises on school periods.

c. Government should enact tougher laws to punish parents who engage students for farm work or petty trading during school hours.

d. Individual and group counselling with adequate modalities should be provided to students with truancy associated problems.

References

  1. Ikiroma B (2010) Absenteeism and lateness among secondary school students: Causes and solutions. Academics Leadership 6.
  2. Maynard B, McGrea KT, Pigott, Kelly M (2012) Campbell Systematic Review. The Campbell collaboration.
  3. Santrock JW (2000) Psychology. McGraw Hill, Boston.
  4. Carter E, McGoldrick M (1998) The expanded family life cycle: Individual family and social perspective. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, New york.
  5. Olomofe A (2008) Problem of truancy and its solutions in our schools. The Nigerian Principal: Journal of ANCOPSS.
  6. Alarid L, Sims B, Ruiz J (2011) School-based juvenile probation and police partnerships for truancy reduction. Journal of Knowledge and Best practices in Juvenile Justice and Psychology 5: 13 -19.
  7. Lotz R, Lee L (1999) Sociability, school experience, and delinquency. Youth and society 31: 199-224.
  8. Kilpatrick P (1996) The Missing School Implications of Curriculum Structuring for Students with Attendance Problems, in: Youth Studies Australia 15: 19-22.
  9. Enomoto EK (1997) Negotiating the ethnics of care and justice. Educational Administration Quartenly, 33: 351-3370.
  10. Wisconsin Legislature Audit Bureau (2000) Truancy reduction efforts: A best practice review. Spectrum: Journal of State Government 73: 13-15.

 

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